The article discusses an introduction of a regulatory litigation in the European Union (EU) analogous to class actions in the U.S. It mentions that earlier the U.S. was the only country to carry out large scale litigation as well as regulatory litigation but EU changed its present policies to adopt cross border collective redress in February, 2012. It presents a combination of new governance theory and equivalence functionalism to determine whether or not EU has adopted regulatory litigation.
S. I. Strong,
Regulatory Litigation in the European Union: Does the U.S. Class Action have a New Analogue,
Notre Dame L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/ndlr/vol88/iss2/8